Civilization of the ancient Egyptians or Pharaonic civilizationIs a civilization which in the north-east Africa, concentrated along the banks of the River Nile in Egypt is currently the State site. Ancient Egyptian civilization arose around 3150 BC. M with political unification of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt under the reign of King Narmer first Egyptian founder of the family history of that civilization was divided into several kingdoms known stable periods, punctuated by periods of relative instability known as the middle periods. Reached Ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power during the era of the modern state of Ramesses' reign, which was followed by a period of decay, and even Egypt was the occupation of foreign powers in this late period of history of ancient Egypt. After the death of Alexander the Great, Alexander the Ocesptlemus a pimp Ptolemaic state, which ruled Egypt until 30 BC. M., When Ahtlthaalambratoria ROMANIAN to become a Roman province.
Associated with the success of ancient Egyptian civilization in part the ability of the ancient Egyptians to adapt to the Nile River, floods Fastglua and used to irrigate this fertile valley for the production of agricultural crops in abundance, which led to the growth of communities on the banks of the Nile. Care of the ancient Egyptians also extracted the mineral wealth of the valley and surrounding desert areas, and placed in the early independent system of writing to organize their agricultural and building their business with their surroundings, and established armies to protect them from their enemies and confirm the domination of Egypt.
He was the organization and management of those activities a layer of bureaucratic elite scribes, religious leaders and administrators under the control of Pharaoh to ensure the spirit of cooperation and unity among the members of the Egyptian people.Included the achievements of the ancient Egyptians for their development of new technologies in space and construction, which facilitated them to build a huge Kalohramat buildings, temples and obelisks; and Anchaihm Vialhassab new systems, medicine, and irrigation, in addition to techniques for agricultural production.Attributed to them as the oldest building of ships known, and techniques for the production of Egyptian faience, glass, and the invention of new colors Manaladb, and held the first known peace treaty. It also left a great legacy of Egyptian civilization in art and architecture is still of interest to many people around the world through the ages until now, which led to the emergence of a special science deals with the scientific discoveries related to the ancient Egyptian civilization, which is known as the knowledge of Egyptology.
Egyptian history is divided to 31 beds, and these families in turn are divided into four main periods are:- The old state.- The state average.- The modern state.- Late period.The period of each of these periods, separated from the period that followed something of the mystery, but this was a great won immortality through the ancient Egyptian architecture. Art is one of the criteria measured by the civilizations of the peoples as it is the language contact from generation to generation. Was seen to Pharaoh himself to that of the gods to that associated with most of the arts in this era of historical significance of religious aims to the perpetuation of the effects, in addition to another goal and not a portrayal of events and victories, which was Ihrzha kings in their wars, we find multiple images of this culture, majestic as among the inscriptions on the walls, statues, pictures, tombs, temples. Different implications of each period of time from the other and each had characteristics that distinguish them.
In the Old Kingdom, which had the outdated trust and stability, we find a statue of King Djoser is a pharaoh of the Third Dynasty tend to abstraction, which is highest in the Pyramids of Giza, the three ordered built by the Pharaohs of the three Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, and thanks to the magnitude and simplicity has become one of the Seven Wonders.The Middle Kingdom era, this period was characterized by the spread of chaos and unrest have been some mixing of foreign civilizations, especially with the West Asia region, but it did not affect the identity of Egyptian art, especially in the history of the pharaohs has been characterized by buildings are enormous.Which we can call it art is the art of the modern state, which began by virtue of Queen Hatshepsut and was characterized by beauty.Among the most famous actress of the elements of high art plant Valjze cylindrical column for the column from its base to its summit is a bundle of stems of the plant sprouts topped with a set of papyrus or lotus flowers. We also find beauty photography such as graphics, which were found in the papyri and coffins and graves decorated fees.
Then came the revolution of civilization under the reign of Amenhotep IV, a pharaoh who replaced the official religion based on worship of the God of Thebes is Amon worship the sun god Aten, and there the revolution of civilization is also in the techniques the appearance of photographing people for the first time, although it was characterized by exaggerating the features of the person to a certain extent as the case in the statues of Amenhotep IV. Show this exaggeration also in the formulation of a daughter of Akhenaten in the palaces of his capital, Tell el-Amarna in the length of the skull of each size in the filming, Erdavhma Alnhilleten legs. But Pharaonic art developed in the last period of the New Kingdom saw the prosperous and prestigious and greatest examples of the Tomb of Tutankhamun and the magnificent Temple of Deir el-Bahari of Queen Hatshepsut, engraved in the rock.And Tgi late period to witness this culture, a further period of crisis periods it is worth mentioning despite the subordination of Egyptian rule of the foreign rulers of Nubians, Assyrians, Persians, but they could not enter any influence on Egyptian art, but increased this art greatness in front of methods refined tried to foreign incorporated in this art Egyptian pure
of Ancient Egypt
Tmtdalhakbh pharaohs in Egypt's history to about three thousand years from 3200 until the entry Qublalmilad Egypt by Alexander the Great in 323 BC.
Egypt has seen the Pharaonic era through many stages of revival and
progress Altytrki a tremendous legacy of the manifestations and effects of urbanization and civilization, science and the arts.
Historians and divide the Pharaonic era in Egypt's history into three sections in a row is
- The old state
The Middle Kingdom.
- The modern state.
It also divides the historians of this period to thirty dynasty divided into three phases of the history of Egypt
Archaic period (two couples 1.2):
Return of the king, "Mina" thanks to achieve political unity of Egypt about the year 3200 BC. M, and was able to establish the first dynasty in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, and Kderad Mina believes that the unity of the country near the capital city sued Delta in Badbosm named "Memphis", and this unit was an important factor in the rise of Egypt in the various Nuahyalehiah
Old Kingdom (Dynasties from 3 to 6):
Aattabrasr this state the period of Egypt's youth was marked by stability, security and peace, which is pleased to provide economically and culturally and technically, and has held the banner of Gmlmloc the old state of the builders of the pyramids about 2800 BC. Antqerh, after that country to Memphis at the hands of Pharaoh Djoser's oldest pyramid known is Hermalmadrj Saqqara, Egypt and civilization flourished in the days of this country, not least from the Pyramids of Giza Alizlk huge King Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
Average age first (Dynasties from 7 to 10):
This era began about the year 2200 BC. M when the reins of government hiked from the hand of Pharaoh was able to "Mentuhotep II" unite the country again.
Middle Kingdom (Dynasties 11.12):
After enabling "Mentuhotep II" Prince of good about the year 2065 BC. Aaadhtouhad m from the country he established a strong government succeeded in strengthening the system and Asttab Alomnmma helped the country to economic recovery and progress of Architecture Arts and then began in 2000 BC. M the rule of a great man is Amenemhat I's great credit that have appeared in Ibnaoualnhih days of the Middle Kingdom.
We have won the kings and queens of the Twelfth Dynasty fame in the fields of Alsaashoaharb, culture, civilization and religion, such as "Ahmose" liberation hero, "Amnhotbalawl" fair, which issued a law to prevent forced labor and the development of standards Adlhllogeor and incentives, and "Thutmose I," the warrior who expanded the Egyptian borders Hmalaojnoba and dissemination of education and the expansion of the open mines and the mining industry, and "Ththompsalthani" and "Thutmose III" Emperor's military genius inimitable and Olvath great in the history of the world, and "Thutmose IV," the diplomat, who was Olmn interested in the codification and the registration of international treaties, and "Amenhotep III," the richest king worldfootball old and who opened the school, "houses of life" for the dissemination of education and Alphenonalcecchelah and applied, and "Akhenaten," the first monotheists and the first king in Tarakhalansanah Club oneness of God the Creator of all things, and "Tutankhamun" Alzahaaz fame in the contemporary world, the most famous queens of this family Sepelalmthal Queen "Ahhotep" the wife of the King "Seqenenre," and Queen "Ahmose Nefertari" the wife of Ahmose I and Queen "T" Bntalcab and wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten, and the Queen "Nefertiti," the wife "Akhenaten" The Great Queen "Hatshepsut", which ruled Egypt for about twenty years and Bulgtmusr in outdated highest peak in the culture, architecture and international trade, where Ersltalbosh marine commercial and scientific to the land of "Punt" also constructed one Mnaazm architectural monuments and most magnificence and luxury, a temple, "Bahari" Alyahati west of the Nile in the face of Luxor a temple is unique in its design and not Hmthel between temples the ancient world as a whole, this era also saw also "religious Thorhakhanaton" where he called to the worship of one God and the symbol of a sun disk and Oncoasma new to the country and he called "Akhetaten
Average age II (Dynasties from 13 to 17):
During the era of the Twelfth Dynasty about as 1725 BC. M Alrauahalta the tribes who lived in Palestine and called "Hyksos" Musroajtiah raided the territory, and when he took power in a weak Hyksos, suppose Taibhakavhon princes in order to recover their usurped freedom and may God wrote them Nagahotmcn Ahmose from taking over their capital in the Delta and expelled from the country
The modern state (Dynasties from 18 to 20):
Ahmose expelled the Hyksos dimensions returned to his country in 1571 BC. M, where he spent the Thoratalnobien south and onto the internal reform in the country and interested in the establishment of Jeicaaml orderly and Slha all weapons known at that time and gave him Bajlataharbah, is Ramses II of the most famous kings of this country are wars Akhralamjhodat made by the kings of the modern state in order to maintain the Alouhdhoukd ended before him withking of the Hittites signed a non-aggression treaty between Alpartyenbad the Battle of Kadesh, and this treaty is the first peace treaty in history and Asubhtmusr great power, and became so great sprawling empire.
Late Period (Dynasties 21 to 30):
The closing chapter of this era in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, where she was since Gmalosrh 21 and 28 for the family until the occupation of each of the Assyrians in 670 BC. M, then the rule of the Pharaohs Alhersany ended with the family of 30 and the entry of Alexander the Great, Egypt
Architecture: Buraalmusrion in architecture and monuments timeless best proof of that in Athalkadima built terraces and pyramids which represent buildings funeral, and the first Hermbny is the "pyramid of Zoser," then "pyramid Meidum," the most famous of all Ohramatdjizh three and a statue of the Sphinx were constructed in the era of the Fourth Dynasty and reached Adeddalohramat which was built to be the abode of the Pharaohs 97 pyramid.Then he started to spread funerary temples in the Middle Kingdom kings were also interested Alosrhal 12 district of Fayoum work its irrigation, the most famous temples established by the kings of Hzhalosrh Temple "Albrant" or "Palace of wilderness" as called by the Greeks, who Hidhalof "Amenemhat III" in Hawara near Fayoum also built castles, Alhsonowalosoar on Egypt's eastern borders. The era of the modern state methods greatest Fterharaftha architecture and murals, arts and crafts delicate Tzaraly walls of colossal temples Kalkrnk designs, Luxor and Abu Simbel.
The era of "Thutmose I," a turning point in the construction of the pyramid to be a cemetery, and Nanmkabr hidden in the soles of the mountain in the west are rich and Luxor Aljmalvy funerary furniture and was clearly shown in the tomb of the King, "Tutankhamun".The artists of this country deliberately - to keep wall inscriptions - to use Alhvralgaúr and slightly embossed so as not to be lost or maimed, and the last Maakchw of the tombs of the Valley of the Kings tomb of the sons of Ramses II, one of the Okprhamessahh containing 15 mummies.The Pharaonic obelisks were set up in duplicate to the entrances of temples and Hymnhoth of granite, and the most beautiful examples of groves Empire Almusriaalkadima temples "Amon" and "Cheops" and "Karnak" and "Luxor" and "Ramesseum" and "Hatshepsut" mainland east and temples carved Viack such as "Abu Simbel" and "Abu Simbel small."There were new trends in architecture and fine arts, applied and Danbesorh clear in the art of carving statues large and small, decorative columns Almaabdoualnicoh wall.
Takdathar Egyptians proficiency in writing and literature and shows that clear in Trkhalmusrion effects, history will not forget the Egyptians preferred to humanity in Achteraaketabh Greeks, which he named "hieroglyphic" Alabagdihalheiroglefah consists of 24 letters .. The ancient Egyptians used black ink Oalahmr in writing on papyrus.The Egyptians excelled in religious literature, which dealt with religious beliefs and theories Analehiah and other secrets of the universe, various myths of the gods, prayers and Alonascidomen the oldest examples of religious literature "texts of the pyramids and the" Book of the Dead. "Writer also excelled in ancient Egyptian writing stories and keen to be Alkelmhadah to convey wisdom and ethics Ancient Egyptians were bent on narrating their heritage Manalgm and proverbs and chant their festivals and celebrations and traditions.Thus, the Egyptians were keen from the peoples of the world to record and identify the Tarichhmwalahdat they have suffered in their lives and this step of civilization emerged many Manaladaba and the wise and Egyptian intellectuals who have left us works indicate Mdyrgi thought and culture in Egypt
Ahbalmusry music and singing, and I accept the Egyptians on the music and used it Fitrbah young people in public and private celebrations, especially in the army, and Kzlcastkhaddmoha in prayers and burial of the dead. The Egyptians knew in the era of Athalkadima woodwind and stringed instruments such as the "fugitive" (the name Pharaonic Tiboty) and created patterns and forms of machines that perform the beats and rhymes Almokhtlfahoukamoa developed through the stages of their history the old one.
Arafalmusrion adornment jewel, and characterized Musnoathm accurate technical and high-Jmalalcecchel, and derived motifs from nature, such as papyrus and Alnjelozahrh lotus and precious stones, and used amulets, which they thought Anhathmiam from the forces of evil, and made sure women's particular interest Bzenthaostkhaddmt kohl, bracelets, contracts, rings, necklaces, henna, as Achtfattalmlabs in Pharaonic Egypt from one class to another, and the clothes are made Manaketan soft or silk fabrics imported from the old country of Syria